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Are you the parent of a child with autism or another disability that is frustrated by the special education system? More than 6 million students with disabilities receive special education services in federally funded special education programs. This is about 9% of the country’s school age population. This is a lot of children who depend on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), to help them get the services that they need to live a fulfilled life. As any parent of a child with a disability knows much improvement needs to be made to the special education system. This article will discuss 6 ways to improve the special education system.
Needed to improve the special education system:
1. More available parent training and more resources to pay for the training! Parent trainings are available but in most cases do cost, which prevents some parents from attending. Parents must understand their rights under IDEA in order to be effective advocates for their child.
2. More effective enforcement of IDEA, to include the withholding of funds from states and school districts, who are continually non compliant! The enforcement of IDEA basically does not exist. It is the federal governments responsibility to enforce IDEA to the states, and it is the states responsibility to enforce IDEA of local school districts. Neither one does very much in this area. Enforcement without withholding of funds will not work. In my experience it will not take many states losing their IDEA funding, before major positive changes will occur.
3. Improved diagnosis of disabilities and an easier eligibility process! Many children with disabilities throughout the US are told that they do not have a disability, therefore are not eligible for special education services. This reality hurts children with disabilities and may forever ruin their lives! Parents often do not even know that they can disagree with the schools opinion! The eligibility process needs to be made more child friendly!
4. Special education personnel must set realistic high expectations for all children with disabilities! Congress has said from the beginning that school districts expectations of children with disabilities are too low. School personnel and parents must believe that children can be successful in their education and lives, if given an appropriate education, and keep expectations high.
5. Focus on outcomes of special education so that all children will be ready for post school learning and independent living! For the year 2005-2006 55% of children with disabilities graduated from high school, in comparison to a little over 70% of children without disabilities graduated from high school. This will limit the children’s ability to go to college or get a job, which will affect the rest of their lives!
6. Improve the federal funding of IDEA! The current estimates are that the federal government only pays about 17% of per pupil costs for special education. The federal government needs to put their money where there mouth is, and fund IDEA fully!
All parents can be involved in advocating for systemic special education improvements. Notify your state and federal representatives and see how they are willing to get involved, in this process. Children with disabilities deserve to receive an appropriate education and live their lives to the fullest!
Starting a new school year is always difficult for any child with autism or Asperger’s syndrome. The change from the routine of summer to the new routine of the school year can lead to meltdowns, anxiety and other problems. Let’s face it, our loved ones with autism spectrum disorders like routine… the same processes over and over again. The same faces. Getting up at the same time. Wearing the same clothes. Eating the same food…and seeing the same familiar faces.
But as a new school year starts, these things change. Wow do they change!
Many children, whether autistic or not, have challenges adjusting. But for a child on the spectrum the adjustment can be overwhelming.
How to Ensure a Successful Start of the School Year for a Child with Autism
Here are 5 tips to ensure a smooth transition and start to a new school year.
Ensure open lines of communication. Speak with teachers, guidance counselors and the principal. If possible, contact your child’s teacher well in advance of the first day of school. Also meet with your child’s aids or counselors and the principal. Ensure that they understand who your child is and know what your child’s special needs are.
Help in the classroom. It is always important to understand just what issues a child with autism is facing and how well he or she is coping. Many teachers are open to having a mom help out in the classroom…as long as you are not disruptive. Find something useful to do…grading papers, filing, putting books back on the library shelves. Find something that allows you to be around your child and help the teacher. This way you will have the opportunity to see how well your child is progressing first hand, even if it is only once every two weeks.
Set correct expectations regarding communication. Tell your child’s teacher how you want to be commented with. How often. By email or in-person visits. Set this up at the very beginning of the school year to ensure that you have a steady stream of information on how your child with autism is doing.
2. Build Familiarity
Establish routine. Nearly all children with autism crave routine. They want to know what will happen and when…and they want to know this in advance. If the school year is about to start, establish this routine now. Set a bed time. A time for doing homework. A time to leave for school and a method of getting there. Make sure your child understand, in advance, these steps.
Visit school at least a week in advance. Tour the school. Look at the classroom. At the desk in which your child will sit. Work with the school to get these issues handles in advance for the first day of school.
Go to the school more than once. Visit the school two weeks in advance. Then one week in advance. Then the day before school starts. Allow your child to get used to this new routine and establish familiarity with the new school, classroom and teacher.
Wander the halls. Work with the school administration to allow your child to wander the halls before the first day of school. Allow him or her to understand the lay of the land. Visit the gym, the cafeteria, the playground, the library. Ensure that there are no areas of the school that will be a surprise to your child the first time they go there once school has started.
Take photos. This is often a great way for a student with autism or Asperger’s syndrome to establish familiarity and get used to the school environment in advance of day one. Take photos of the school…his or her classroom, their desk, the cafeteria, the gym. Allow your child to view these photos and make a photo scrapbook so that they are comfortable with the setting before school starts. This way, the only new aspect of the school that your child will not have seen before school starts is the student body.
3. Develop Routine
Develop a set schedule in advance. Before the first day of school establish the entire school year routine. Where will your child sleep, eat, play? What about chores? Get this all established before school starts.
Allow your child to have input. Depending on the age of your child with autism, allow him or her to contribute to the establishment of the routine. Let them have input. What time will they do their homework? What time is bed time? Where will they sit to do their homework? The more input your child with autism has on these issues the more comfortable and cooperative they will be.
4. Organize for Success
Get your child organized. With most children with autism, chaos reins in their heads all the time. It is essential to help your child stay organized…especially now that school is starting.
Set a specific place to do homework. Ensure that the right school supplies (pencils, erasers, paper, etc.) are there and have their organized place. Lighting and noise are often sensitivities that children with autism struggle with. Make sure your son or daughter have appropriate light and that their study spot is quiet.
Eliminate noise. Ensure the home environment as well as the place that you set aside for your son or daughter to work is quiet and appropriate for studying. Make sure the TV and radio is off in the house and that other siblings are not running around causing commotion when your child with autism is trying to study.
Establish a timeline. Once your child is home from school a good idea is to allow some down time…perhaps 30 minutes. Then it is time to do homework. Establish a specific time for play, for homework, for down time… and stick to this schedule.
Allow your child to learn and develop scheduling skills. One issue that plagues many children with autism is poor organizational skills. Allow your child to help establish an organized plan for the new school year. By doing this your child with autism will learn a valuable organization lesson that will help throughout his or her life.
Develop self-advocacy. You are your child’s best advocate. You will help them with homework, help them get to school; make sure that they receive the resources they need to succeed in school. But, over time, your child needs to learn self-advocacy. As your child gets older, perhaps as a teenager, they will need to understand that the “squeaky wheel gets the grease.” They will have to understand what their rights are and begin to stand up for them.
Allow more responsibility over time. In the middle school years and especially in high school, your child should learn what he needs to be successful and practice getting these resources. After all, what is school for? It is to help your child transition into young adulthood. While it is important for you to fight for resources for your child, you cannot always be there. This is the time when you need to help your child help themselves.
Bringing out the best from library staff has been an issue for the proper functioning of librarians in Sierra Leone (SL). Librarians, according to Crosby (2008) are information experts in the Information Age. Their expertise in the handling of information has not been seen or realised, even though these professionals have been around for a long time. Librarians and information professionals have not attained the status and position they should rightly occupy in society. In most Ministries, Departments and Government Agencies (MDAs), where information handling and records keeping are key functions, librarians, records managers and information professionals have not been employed to do these jobs. Instead, other professionals, mostly people with accounting and business management backgrounds have been employed. In essence, the work of librarians has not been so much felt and appreciated.
Library and information services in Sierra Leone
Information is a fundamental asset for any society to thrive well in this 21st century. It is the tool by which learning takes place and decisions are made. It provides the needed answers to people’s requests and longings from all walks of life. Therefore, the provision of library and information services to all is undisputable. Almost all types of libraries exist in SL, because no individual library can provide all the information needed by every potential user. In this regard, different libraries exist to serve different users and their needs.
The Sierra Leone Library Board (SLLB) serves as both the National and Public library in the country. There are mainly nine (9) Academic libraries scattered throughout the country, all of these are found in the tertiary institutions (Universities, Colleges, Institutes and Teacher Training Colleges) providing higher education. School libraries are found in most Primary, Junior and Senior Secondary Schools. However, a vast majority of these are not functional. Special libraries are found in MDAs, private companies and individual established libraries. In addition to these are research and documentation centres, such as the Medical Research Centre; Information Resource centres, such as that established by the Embassy of the United States of America; and many small community information centres. These information centres are widely used by information seekers due to the main fact that they provide online services for almost free of charge.
The SLLB serves as the pivotal point for the provision of library and information services in the country. It is open to all: professionals, academics, researchers, students, pupils and for all children. There also, the general populace information needs are catered for. All of these are geared towards meeting our societal needs for information, education, research, entertainment and leisure activities.
Staff in libraries and information service institutions in Sierra Leone
There are two broad classes of staff employed in our libraries as is the case for libraries all over the world: those involved in library and information work, and those who provide back-up services. Library and information staff functions at different levels from non-professional, Para-professional, professional, specialists to managerial. At the support level, there are also manual/care taking staff, clerical/secretarial, technical and computer staff, and specialist staff. These all play a part in providing the information that users’ desire.
Library staff should function above the normal information provision role. Other important functions are:
I. Guide – providing physical, technical and intellectual guides to information resources in various formats; ii. Collaborate – with others, known users as well as users who come for some manner of services over and over again, and even remote users; iii. Prioritise – be flexible in performing new functions in order to incorporate new demands in procedures, structures and directions; iv. Empower – delegate responsibility thereby empowering colleagues; and v. Understand core capabilities – of the library, its environment, colleagues and most importantly the users.
Training library staff in Sierra Leone
The Institute of Library, Information and Communication Studies (INSLICS), Fourah Bay College (FBC), University of Sierra Leone (USL), is where Librarians and Information Professionals are trained and equipped for the world of work. INSLICS comprises two divisions that offer two distinct programmes: the Divisions of Mass Communication and Library, Archive and Information Studies respectively. The Mass Communication Division offers academic courses in the art and science of human communication and prepares students for career opportunities in public information services, print media, broadcast media, public relations, film production, advertising, marketing, advocacy and related fields. While the Division of Library, Archive and Information Studies caters for the professional training of librarians, records managers, archivists and information scientists to manage libraries, resource centres, information centres and related activities.
The Division of Library, Archive and Information Studies was formally established in 1986. It aims to provide for the training and education of Librarians, Archivists, and Information Scientists at a variety of levels, for those employed in both professional and non-professional capacities in Libraries, Archive Departments and Information Centres. Within the USL it is the particular mission of the Division of Library, Archive and Information Studies to educate men and women for professional careers as librarians and information specialists and to foster research and service programmes relating to society’s library and information needs.
Its goals are:
I. To furnish students with the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are basic to professional competence and career-long professional growth in the field of library and information services; II. To expand the knowledge base of the profession through research; and III. To share its resources by extending services within and beyond SL.
The Division currently offers the following courses:
1. Special Certificate in Library, Archive and Information Studies – this is a one year full-time course and is ideally suited to those with some experience of library and information work, who wish to receive training in basic library/information skills;
2. Diploma in Library, Archive and Information Studies – a two-year full-time course for those who may have some experience of library work and who hope to hold a Para-professional position in a library/information centre or archive in the future;
3. Bachelor of Arts with Honours in Library, Archive and Information Studies – a four-year full-time course;
4. Post-Graduate Diploma in Library, Archive and Information Studies – a one-year programme for graduates;
5. Master of Philosophy in Library, Archive and Information Studies – a two-year programme, i.e. one year taught programme and one year research.
The challenge for library staff
The challenges facing library staff in SL are numerous. Among them, the following are worth mentioning: low wages, limited capacity, no proper networking, poor infrastructure, users’ ignorance and the polemics of status.
The challenge of users’ ignorance
An anonymous writer once wrote that “A library is a hospital for the mind.” This means that the librarian is the trained doctor or nurse to administer treatment to every sick mind. This also means that the user who needs information is the sick mind that really needs treatment from the librarian. This is the ideal case, but not the pragmatic one. For every Sierra Leonean needs information for survival and growth; but going to the library is the major barrier. This is due to the fact that many are not well informed that the library exists to provide the daily information they want. As such there are libraries with information and knowledge to help people, but these people are unaware of going there for such help. It is therefore the responsibility of library staff to make people become aware that the library can meet their daily information needs. They must find ways and means to reach out to the public. Two important ways for every library are through the public relations and marketing library and information services.
The challenge of the polemics of status
Wilson (1982) stated that librarians have long exhibited a curious, and intense, status anxiety that is reflected in the endless polemics about the professional status (or lack thereof) among them. Librarianship should be one of those professions seeking a conspicuous status in the market. As Harris (1995) mentioned, since the inception of the idea of a ‘library’ in the United States, and more significantly, since the middle of the 19th century, librarians and friends of libraries have been debating the proper role of the library profession. Librarianship is one of those professions that impinge on the very survival of any society. The Librarian commands a unique status parallel with traditional professions in SL. If we can accept the saying that “knowledge itself is a form of power,” then the Librarian is the controller of that power. He is the custodian of the nation’s knowledge base.
A redefinition of the library profession and the librarian in developing countries is urgently needed. Just as how Huttemann (1985) mentioned that “self-sustaining and self-reliant Pan-African economic growth needs to develop its natural and human resources.” So the work and role of librarians are keys for SL to realise her much envisaged economic growth and prosperity. As Huttemann further stated that the promotion of socio-economic and cultural development can be conducted properly only if it is supported by sound information and documentation services needed for sectors like education, health services, agriculture, industry and trade alike. In essence, it is a matter of must that librarians should be in the business of accessing, organising, storing and disseminating information where and when needed. It is also crystal clear that librarians must question the definition they have accepted. A thorough understanding of their role is a sine qua non for a clearer view. They must come forward with the goal of helping society to understand that they exist to provide information for survival and growth. This goal, as insisted by Bundy and Wasserman (1968) and Harris, Hannah and Harris (1998) must be to forge a new professional identity.
Librarianship, according to Taylor (1980), is the profession that is concerned with the systematic organisation of knowledge in all its various formats and its dissemination for the purpose of preserving society’s cultural heritage, promoting scholarship and the generation of new knowledge. However, this definition is far-fetched to the common understanding of many Sierra Leoneans. The general view is of some persons sitting behind many books in large stalks of shelves and waiting for patrons to come and request for assistance. For long librarians in SL have been labeled as “book keepers” and jobs for those teachers who have been left out unnoticeably by the school curriculum. The profession itself has long been battling with Public Relations (PR). As Mchombu (1985) put it ” In most developing countries, the percentage of population which are active library users is still very low… it is, therefore, important to encourage many more people from all walks of life to increase their use of Libraries so that existing information resources can be fully exploited” (p.115). In essence, as Mchombu further asserted library staff can no longer afford to sit and wait for a few enlightened readers to come to them, they must be more aggressive, be prepared to go out and search for and encourage all potential readers to come to the library because it has information which can be applied to what they are doing to improve final results.
To this, librarians must ensure that they emphasise on creating value from know-how and expertise. Bell (1973) has long since made this clarion call that the central figure in the post-industrial society will be the information professional. For as Bell insisted what counts is not raw muscle power, or energy, but information. The central person is the professional, for he is equipped, by his education and training, to provide the kinds of skill that is increasingly demanded in the post-industrial society.
Bringing out the best in library staff
The library profession must be able to overcome its challenges. A sure way of doing this is to motivate every library staff. When library staff are properly motivated, the best from them can be realised. Library managers should as a matter of must, make motivation for staff an issue of importance. Motivating staff in any organisation is probably the most difficult task of the manager. Not only do people react differently to the same stimuli but the motivation process is quite complex. It is concerned with those factors that stimulate human behaviour, how behaviour is directed, and how it can be maintained. Staff can seem at times to behave illogically, perversely and unpredictably. Contrary to the belief of some, the good management of staff is not just a matter of common sense. To manage staff requires a formal effort to grasp these influences so that our individual attitudes can be controlled and developed to meet the day to day staff situation in a way in which common sense will have difficulty (Shimmon, 1976).
It is particularly important that the manager of a service organisation like a library/information unit makes this effort for two reasons: Firstly, his product, being service is closely linked with the attitudes of serving staff themselves and it is not possible by inspection to reveal a faulty service in the easy way that faulty materials can be detected; and secondly, the cost of labour is likely to continue rising at a greater rate than that of the manager’s other main tools, machinery and materials, and he must therefore use the staff he really does need to best advantage (Webb, 1985). Some of the staff may be motivated by money and what it will buy, others by achieving ever higher services year after year, and some by the “thrill of the change.” Thus the manager, will need to address motivation in some depth by studying speculations such as organisational theory and behaviour.
The challenge for bringing out the best
Someone has said unofficially that Sierra Leoneans naturally are not difficult to please. Sierra Leoneans are generally motivated when the two lowest layers of Maslow’s pyramid are satisfied. One of the basic problems in this society is a good remuneration package that can take care of the basic needs of people. In this part of the world five basic needs are evident: food, shelter, clothing, transportation and medical. If attention is paid to these needs for every library staff, we have solved much of the problems affecting them and we are on the verge of getting the best from them.
So a good package must contain basic pay and allowances that will cover rent, transportation, and medical. The Government of Sierra Leone (GoSL) announced minimum wage pay is Five Hundred Thousand Leones (SLL 500,000.00), placing it at Eighty United Dollars (US$ 80) at the current exchange rate (2016). This will not provide the good pay that librarians will want to work for. The rising cost of basic necessities, particularly food items, due to inflation in the country, means that this minimum wage is not encouraging. Therefore libraries must ensure that they go two times beyond this minimum wage pay in order to meet their staff basic need.
Furthermore, staff should be sent to the library school for training and development. Longer-serving staff without qualifications can be encouraged to do certificate programmes. Reference and other professional librarians are to be sent for refresher courses and exchange programmes for capacity development.
Conclusively, the best from library staff can be enhanced if the challenges facing them are dealt with and if they are properly motivated. Amongst the several challenges, user ignorance and the polemics of status are to be surmounted by librarians. Furthermore, they should be fairly motivated to take on their proper roles. In this sense, their remuneration packages as well as encouragement for career developments and trainings must be attended to. The library school should help in this direction.